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torhüter england

Juli So lautet der Refrain eines in England gerade sehr populären Fan-Songs. sehnte sich ganz Fußball-England nach einem starken Torhüter. 9. Sept. Ein Glück für Torhüter, die auch am Fuß mit dem Ball umgehen können, Torhüter-Debatte Wie England den mitspielenden Torwart entdeckt. Juni Einen guten WM-Torwart hatte die englische Nationalelf selten. Nun soll der eher kleine Jordan Pickford in Russland im Tor stehen.

No Pajamas On School Run. The principal of a primary school in northern England wants to impose a dress code - not on students, but on their parents.

British Prime Minister David Cameron visited the flood-hit historic city of York on Monday as thousands of people in northern England started a clean-up amid volatile weather conditions around Europe.

European airspaces to open up today Apr 20, The Patel eleven Aug 10, Home Topic Northern England. In Food Waste Fight, Brits Turn Bread Into Beer World News Agence France-Presse Tuesday December 12, At a brewery nestled in rolling farmland in northern England, the process of making beer begins with dropping dozens of unwanted loaf ends, thrown away by a sandwich factory, into a large stainless steel tank.

Your search did not match any documents. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the economy of the North was dominated by heavy industry such as weaving, shipbuilding, steelmaking and mining.

The deindustrialisation that followed in the second half of the 20th century hit Northern England hard, and many towns remain deprived compared with those in Southern England.

Urban renewal projects and the transition to a service economy have resulted in strong economic growth in some parts of Northern England, but a definite North—South divide remains both in the economy and the culture of England.

Centuries of migration, invasion and labour have shaped Northern culture, and the region retains distinctive dialects, music and cuisine.

For government and statistical purposes, Northern England is defined as the area covered by the three statistical regions of North East England , North West England and Yorkshire and the Humber.

This definition will be used in this article, except when otherwise stated. Other definitions use historic county boundaries, in which case the North is generally taken to comprise Cumberland , Northumberland, Westmorland , County Durham, Lancashire and Yorkshire , often supplemented by Cheshire, [3] or are drawn without reference to human borders, using geographic features such as the River Mersey and River Trent.

Some areas of Derbyshire , Lincolnshire , Nottinghamshire and Staffordshire have Northern characteristics and include satellites of Northern cities.

More recently, the Chesterfield , North East Derbyshire , Bolsover , and Derbyshire Dales districts have joined with districts of South Yorkshire to form the Sheffield City Region , along with the Bassetlaw district of Nottinghamshire, although for all other purposes these districts still remain in their respective East Midlands counties.

The geographer Danny Dorling includes most of the West Midlands and part of the East Midlands in his definition of the North, claiming that "ideas of a midlands region add more confusion than light".

Personal definitions of the North vary greatly and are sometimes passionately debated. When asked to draw a dividing line between North and South, Southerners tend to draw this line further south than Northerners do.

Through the North of England run the Pennines , an upland chain, often referred to as "the backbone of England", which stretches from the Tyne Gap to the Peak District.

Glaciers carved deep, craggy valleys in the central uplands, and, when they melted, deposited large quantities of fluvio-glacial material in lowland areas like the Cheshire and Solway Plains.

Much of the mountainous upland remains undeveloped, and of the ten national parks in England , five — the Peak District, the Lake District, the North York Moors, the Yorkshire Dales , and Northumberland National Park — are located partly or entirely in the North.

Dense urban areas have emerged along the coasts and rivers, and they run almost contiguously into each other in places. The needs of trade and industry have produced an almost continuous thread of urbanisation from the Wirral Peninsula to Doncaster , taking in the cities of Liverpool , Manchester , Leeds , and Sheffield , with a population of at least 7.

Peat is found in thick, plentiful layers across the Pennines and Scottish Borders, and there are many large coalfields, including the Great Northern , Lancashire and South Yorkshire Coalfields.

Rich deposits of iron ore are found in Cumbria and the North East, and fluorspar and baryte are also plentiful in northern parts of the Pennines.

Northern England has a cool, wet oceanic climate with small areas of subpolar oceanic climate in the uplands. Its temperature range and sunshine duration is similar to the UK average and it sees substantially less rain than Scotland or Wales.

These averages disguise considerable variation across the region, due chiefly to the upland regions and adjacent seas. The prevailing winds across the British Isles are westerlies bringing moisture from the Atlantic Ocean; this means that the west coast frequently receives strong winds and heavy rainfall while the east coast lies in a rain shadow behind the Pennines.

The area has a reputation for cloud and fog — especially along its east coast, which experiences a distinctive sea fog known as fret — although the Clean Air Act and decline of heavy industry have seen sunshine duration increase in urban areas in recent years.

The English spoken today in the North has been shaped by the area's history, and some dialects retain features inherited from Old Norse and the local Celtic languages.

Linguists have attempted to define a Northern dialect area, corresponding to the area north of a line that begins at the Humber estuary and runs up the River Wharfe and across to the River Lune in north Lancashire.

As speech has changed, there is little consensus on what defines a "Northern" accent or dialect. Northern English accents have not undergone the TRAP — BATH split , and a common shibboleth to distinguish them from Southern ones is the Northern use of the short a the near-open front unrounded vowel in words such as bath and castle.

The pronouns thou and thee survive in some Northern English dialects, although these are dying out outside very rural areas, and many dialects have an informal second-person plural pronoun: Possessive pronouns are also used to mark the names of relatives in speech for example, a relative called Joan would be referred to as "our Joan" in conversation.

With urbanisation, distinctive urban accents have arisen which often differ greatly from the historical accents of the surrounding rural areas and sometimes share features with Southern English accents.

There are no recognised minority languages in Northern England, although the Northumbrian Language Society campaigns to have the Northumbrian dialect recognised as a separate language.

Contact between English and immigrant languages has given rise to new accents and dialects. For instance, the variety of English spoken by Poles in Manchester is distinct both from typical Polish-accented English and from Mancunian.

Bradford for instance has the largest proportion of Pashto speakers, while Manchester has most Cantonese speakers. During the ice ages , Northern England was buried under ice sheets, and little evidence remains of habitation — either because the climate made the area uninhabitable, or because glaciation destroyed most evidence of human activity.

Significant settlement appears to have begun in the Mesolithic era, with Star Carr in North Yorkshire generally considered the most significant monument of this era.

The Lincolnshire and Yorkshire Wolds around the Humber Estuary were settled and farmed in the Bronze Age , and the Ferriby Boats — one of the best-preserved finds of the era — were discovered near Hull in Roman histories name the Celtic tribe that occupied the majority of Northern England as the Brigantes , likely meaning "Highlanders".

Whether the Brigantes were a unified group or a looser federation of tribes around the Pennines is debated, but the name appears to have been adopted by the inhabitants of the region, which was known by the Romans as Brigantia.

Tacitus records that they handed the resistance leader Caratacus over to the Empire in Bernicia and Deira were first united as Northumbria by Aethelfrith , a king of Bernicia who conquered Deira around the year Parts of the north and east of England were subject to Danish control the Danelaw during the Viking era , but the northern part of the old Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria remained under Anglo-Saxon control.

In the winter of —, towns, villages and farms were systematically destroyed across much of Yorkshire as well as northern Lancashire and County Durham.

Chroniclers at the time reported a hundred thousand deaths — modern estimates place the total somewhere in the tens of thousands, out of a population of two million.

Following Norman subjugation, monasteries returned to the North as missionaries sought to "settle the desert". A significant Flemish immigration followed the conquest, which likely populated much of the desolated regions of Cumbria, and which was persistent enough that the town of Beverley in Humberside still had an ethnic enclave called Flemingate in the thirteenth century.

In the peace treaty that followed, Prince Henry of Scotland was made Earl of Northumberland and kept the counties of Cumberland, Westmorland and Northumbria, as well as part of Lancashire.

These reverted to English control in , establishing for the most part the modern England—Scotland border. There was also the Wars of the Roses , including the decisive Battle of Wakefield , although the modern-day conception of the war as a conflict between Lancashire and Yorkshire is anachronistic — Lancastrians recruited from across Northern England, including Yorkshire, while the Yorkists drew most of their power from Southern England, Wales and Ireland.

The Council existed intermittently for the next two centuries — its final incarnation was created in the aftermath of the Pilgrimage of Grace and was chiefly an institution for providing order and dispensing justice.

Northern England was a focal point for fighting during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution , Northern England had plentiful coal and water power while the poor agriculture in the uplands meant that labour in the area was cheap.

Mining and milling, which had been practiced on a small scale in the area for generations, began to grow and centralise. High quality steel in turn fed the shipyards that opened along the coasts, especially on Tyneside and at Barrow-in-Furness.

By there were Orange organisations in Lancashire, 71 in the North East, and 42 in Yorkshire. Some immigrants were well-to-do industrialists seeking to do business in the booming industrial cities, some were escaping poverty, some were servants or slaves, some were sailors who chose to settle in the port towns, some were Jews fleeing pogroms on the continent, and some were migrants originally stranded at Liverpool after attempting to catch an onwards ship to the United States or to colonies of the British Empire.

In the interwar years , the Northern economy began to be eclipsed by the South — in —, unemployment in "outer Britain" the North, plus Scotland and Wales was 2.

The Great Depression highlighted the weakness of Northern England's specialised economy: The industrial concentration in Northern England made it a major target for Luftwaffe attacks during the Second World War.

The Blitz of — saw major raids on Barrow-in-Furness , Hull , Leeds , Manchester , Merseyside , Newcastle and Sheffield with thousands killed and significant damage to the cities.

Liverpool, a vital port for supplies from North America, was especially hard hit — the city was the most bombed in the UK outside London, with around 4, deaths across Merseyside and most of the city centre destroyed.

Deindustrialisation continued and unemployment gradually increased during the s, but accelerated during the government of Margaret Thatcher , who chose not to encourage growth in the North if it risked growth in the South.

Northern metropolitan county councils, which were Labour strongholds often with very left-wing leadership such as Militant-dominated Liverpool and the so-called " People's Republic of South Yorkshire " , had high-profile conflicts with the national government.

The increasing awareness of the North—South divide strengthened the distinct Northern English identity, which, despite regeneration in some of the major cities, remains to this day.

The region saw several IRA attacks during the Troubles , including the M62 coach bombing , the Warrington bomb attacks and the and Manchester bombings.

The latter was the largest bomb detonation in Great Britain since the end of the Second World War, and damaged or destroyed much of central Manchester.

As of the census, Northern England had a population of 14,, — a growth of 5. The broad averages hide significant variation within the region: Allerdale and Redcar and Cleveland had a greater percentage of the population identifying as White British As of the census, the largest languages apart from English were Polish spoken by 0.

Yorkshire and the Humber and the North West both had significant populations of Muslims — 6. The census question on religion has been criticised by the British Humanist Association as leading , and other surveys of religion tend to find very different results.

One major manifestation of the North—South divide is in health and life expectancy statistics. However, regional differences do seem to be slowly narrowing: Before the 19th century there were no universities in Northern England.

The first was the University of Durham , founded in and sometimes counted with the ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge , although it post-dates them by many centuries.

Today, there are seven Northern institutions in the Russell Group of leading research universities: Durham, the redbricks of Leeds , Liverpool , Manchester , Newcastle and Sheffield and the later plate glass university of York.

These universities, together with plate-glass Lancaster , form the N8 Research Partnership. There is a significant attainment gap between Northern and Southern schools, and pupils in the three Northern regions are less likely than the national average to achieve five higher-tier GCSEs , [] although this may be down to economic disadvantages faced by Northern pupils rather than an actual difference in school quality.

Like the UK as a whole, the Northern English economy is now dominated by the service sector — as of September , Manufacturing now employs 9.

Growth, employment and household income have lagged behind the South, and the five most deprived districts in England [j] are all in Northern England, [] [] as are ten of the twelve most declining major towns in the UK.

Sheffield Hallam is one of the wealthiest constituencies in the country, and is the richest outside London and the South East, while Sheffield Brightside and Hillsborough , just on the other side of the city, is one of the most deprived.

However, some areas have seen house prices fall considerably, putting inhabitants at risk of negative equity. To stimulate the Northern economy, the government has organised a series of programmes to invest in and develop the region, of which the latest as of is the Northern Powerhouse.

Between and , EU funds created around 70, jobs in the region, and the majority of Northern Powerhouse funding comes from the European Regional Development Fund and the European Investment Bank.

The public sector is a major employer in Northern England. Between and , the majority of new jobs created in Northern England were for the government and its suppliers and contractors.

The only part of the region that is predominantly given over to crops is the land around the Humber estuary, where the well-drained fens result in excellent quality land.

In the twentieth century, numbers of red grouse and black grouse in the area fell significantly, but improved gamekeeping practices have resulted in both species making a comeback in the region.

Sea fishing is an important industry for Northern coastal towns. Major fishing ports include Fleetwood , Grimsby, Hull and Whitby.

At its height, Grimsby was the largest fishing port in the world, but the Northern fishing industry suffered greatly from a series of events in the second half of the twentieth century: Northern England has a strong export-based economy, with trade more balanced than the UK average, and the North East is the only region of England to regularly export more than it imports.

Offshore oil and gas from North Sea and Irish Sea, and more recently offshore wind , are significant components in Northern England's energy mix.

Northern England was the birthplace of the modern cooperative movement , and the Manchester-based Co-operative Group has the highest revenue of any firm in the North West.

With urban regeneration, high-value service sector industries such as corporate services and financial services have taken root in Northern England, with major hubs around Leeds and Manchester.

Together, the N8 research universities have over , students and contribute more to the Northern economy in terms of GVA than agriculture, car manufacturing or media.

Recent decades have seen the growth of high-tech companies based around Northern England's major cities.

The expansion of the railway network in the second half of the nineteenth century meant most in the North lived within reach of the coast, and seaside towns saw a major tourism boom.

By around Blackpool on the Lancashire coast had become overwhelmingly the most popular destination — not just for Northern families, but many from the Midlands and Scotland as well.

The same social forces that had built these resorts in the nineteenth century proved to be their undoing in the twentieth.

Transport links continued to improve and it became possible to travel overseas quickly and affordably. The Belgian coast at Ostend became popular with Northern working-class tourists in the first half of the twentieth century, and the introduction of package holidays in the s was the death of most Northern seaside resorts.

The wild landscapes of the North are a major draw for tourists, [] and many urban areas are looking for regeneration through industrial , heritage and cultural tourism: Since The Guardian formerly The Manchester Guardian moved to London in , no major national paper is based in the North, and Northern news stories tend to be poorly covered in the national press.

Manchester Network Access Point is the only internet exchange point in the UK outside London, and forms the main hub for the region.

Some areas have therefore formed their own community enterprises, such as Broadband 4 Rural North in Lancashire and Cybermoor in Cumbria, to install high-speed internet connections.

Mobile broadband coverage is similarly patchy, with 3G and 4G almost universal in cities but unavailable in large parts of Yorkshire, the North East and Cumbria.

The individual regions of the North have had their own identities and cultures for centuries, but with industrialisation, mass media and the opening of the North—South divide, a common Northern identity began to develop.

This identity was initially a reactionary response to Southern prejudices—the North of the nineteenth century was largely depicted as a dirty, wild and uncultured place, even in sympathetic depictions such as Elizabeth Gaskell 's novel North and South [] —but became an affirmation of what Northerners saw as their own personal strengths.

This too has its roots in industrialisation, when mills offered well-paid work for women: Northern women are still stereotyped as strong-willed and independent, or affectionately as battle-axes.

The North of England is often stereotypically represented through the clothing worn by working-class men and women in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

In the second half of the twentieth century, these traditional clothes fell out of fashion. Other styles such as " casual " mainland European designer clothing brought back by touring football fans and sportswear became more popular, and the influence of Northern bands and football teams helped spread them across the country.

Impressions of Northern English cuisine are still shaped by the working-class diet of the early twentieth century, which was heavy on offal , high in calories and often not particularly healthy.

Dishes such as black pudding , tripe , mushy peas and meat pie remain stereotypical Northern English foods in the national imagination.

As a result, there is a concerted effort among Northern chefs to improve the region's image. Among the Northern delicacies that have achieved Protected Geographical Status are traditional Cumberland sausage , traditional Grimsby smoked fish , Swaledale cheese , Yorkshire forced rhubarb and Yorkshire Wensleydale.

The North is known for its often crumbly cheeses, of which Cheshire cheese is the earliest example.

Unlike Southern cheeses like Cheddar , Northern cheeses typically use uncooked milk and a pre-salted curd pressed under enormous weights, resulting in a moist, sharp-tasting cheese.

Parkin , an oatmeal cake with black treacle and ginger , is a traditional treat across the North on Bonfire Night , [] and the fruity scone -like singing hinny and fat rascal are popular in the North East and Yorkshire respectively.

In recent decades, immigration to Northern England has shaped its cuisine. The Teesside parmo is one example, derived from escalope Parmesan brought to the area by an Italian-American immigrant and adapted to the region's taste.

The contrasting geography of Northern England is reflected in its literature. On the one hand, the wild moors and lakes have inspired generations of Romantic authors: Classics of children's literature such as The Railway Children , The Secret Garden and Swallows and Amazons portray these largely untouched landscapes as worlds of adventure and transformation where their protagonists can break free of the restrictions of society.

Meanwhile, the industrialising and urbanising cities of the North gave rise to many masterpieces of social realism. Traditional folk music in Northern England is a combination of styles of England and Scotland — what is now called the Anglo-Scottish border ballad was once prevalent as far south as Lancashire.

These disappeared in the early nineteenth century from the industrialising south of the region, but remain in the music of Northumbria.

These bands provided entertainment at community events and led protest marches during the era of radical agitation. Northern England also has a thriving popular music scene.

Influential movements include Merseybeat from the Liverpool area, which produced The Beatles , Northern soul , which brought Motown to England, and Madchester , the precursor to the rave scene.

Sport has been both one of the most unifying cultural forces in Northern England and, thanks to local rivalries such as the Lancashire—Yorkshire Roses rivalry , one of the most divisive.

As huge numbers of people moved into recently-built cities with little cultural heritage, local sports teams offered the population a sense of place and identity that was otherwise absent.

Many early Northern sports players were working class and needed to miss work to play, with their teams compensating them for lost wages.

By contrast, Southern teams, drawing from the traditions of public schools and Oxbridge , put great emphasis on amateurism and the Southern-dominated governing bodies forbade payments to players.

This tension shaped the sports of association football and cricket , and led to the schism between the two main forms of rugby.

The North is also associated with the animal sports of dog racing with whippets , pigeon racing and ferret legging , although these are now far more popular in stereotype than in reality.

In recent years, the region has also become a major host of athletics events. The first football club in the UK was Sheffield F. Early Northern football teams tended to adopt the Sheffield Rules rather than the Football Association Rules , but the two codes were merged in Many of the innovations of Sheffield Rules are now part of the global game, including corners , throw-ins , and free kicks for fouls.

In response, Preston withdrew from the competition and fellow Lancashire clubs Burnley and Great Lever followed suit.

The protest gathered momentum to the point where more than 30 clubs, predominantly from the North, announced that they would set up a rival British Football Association if the FA did not permit professionalism.

However, the FA did not support women's football and banned it altogether in The Rugby Football Union , which enforced amateurism, suspended teams who compensated their players for missed work and injury, leading teams from Lancashire, Yorkshire and surrounding areas to split away in and form the Rugby Football League.

Over time, the RFU and RFL adopted different rules and the two forms of the game — rugby union and rugby league — diverged.

Rugby league's stronghold remains Northern England along the " M62 corridor " between Liverpool and Hull. Rugby union was not entirely driven from Northern England, and in the s the region was home to several strong teams.

Cricket has a strong following in Northern England, and three counties are represented by first-class county cricket teams: Durham , Lancashire and Yorkshire.

The Roses Match named for the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York between Lancashire and Yorkshire is one of the hardest fought rivalries in the sport — the pride of both sides, and their determination not to lose, resulted in the teams developing a slow, stubborn and defensive style that proved unpopular elsewhere in the country.

Other areas of the North have regularised the pronouns in the opposite direction, with meself used instead of myself. This appears to be a trait inherited from Irish English, and like Irish speakers, many Northern speakers use reflexive pronouns in non-reflexive situations for emphasis.

Depending on the region, reflexive pronouns can be pronounced and often written as if they ended -sen , -sel or -self even in plural pronouns or ignoring the suffix entirely.

In addition to Standard English terms, the Northern English lexis includes many words derived from Norse languages, as well as words from Middle English that disappeared in other regions.

The Yan Tan Tethera system was traditionally used in tasks such as shepherding, counting stitches in knitting and reckoning money, as well as in children's nursery rhymes and counting-out games , and may have been borrowed from a relatively modern form of the Welsh language rather than being a remnant of the Celtic of Northern England.

A study of a corpus of Late Modern English texts from or set in Northern England found lad "boy" or "young man" and lass "girl" or "young woman" were the most widespread "pan-Northern" dialect terms.

Regional dialects within Northern England also had many unique terms, and canny "clever" and nobbut "nothing but" were both common in the corpus, despite being limited to the North East and to the North West and Yorkshire respectively.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Northern England English. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.

Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. July Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Geordie and Northumberland, when not final or before a voiced fricative: West Yorkshire, more commonly: An Atlas of English Dialects. Journal of Linguistics Vol.

Retrieved 11 July In Schneider, Edgar W. A handbook of varieties of English. A Critical Introduction to Phonetics. Continuum International Publishing Group.

A Social and Cultural History. The British Isles pp. Katie Wales , Northern English: Dialects and accents of Modern English by continent.

Varieties by geographic location.

Torhüter england -

Dank seiner Einsätze in der englischen UNationalmannschaft bekam er trotz des sportlich enttäuschenden Jahres zahlreiche Angebote. Mitspielende Torhüter gibt es schon länger in England. Sofern der Auswahlprozess an der neuralgischen Stelle im Kader nicht eine unvorhergesehene Wende nimmt, ist die Entscheidung zugunsten Pickfords gefallen. Szene Mane vs Ederson völlig unbrauchbar für die These! Spätestens seit Manuel Neuers Ausflügen im WM-Achtelfinale vor vier Jahren gegen Algerien sollte doch klar sein, dass von einem Torhüter heutzutage mehr verlangt wird, als nur auf der Torlinie zu kleben. Archived from the original on 19 July Centuries of migration, invasion and labour have shaped Northern culture, and the region retains distinctive dialects, music and cuisine. Archived from the original on 11 May The planned High Win Sum Dim Sum Slot Machine Online ᐈ Microgaming™ Casino Slots 2 station club world casino no deposit bonus code Manchester Airport will offer direct high-speed services to Beste Spielothek in Einodsiedlung finden, allowing spare capacity at Manchester Airport to take some of the flights which currently serve busy London airports. A Companion to Roman Britain. An Archaeological History of Britain: Archived Beste Spielothek in Tatendorf finden the original on 6 April Online jatekok, Northumbrian Anglo-Saxon and Old West Norse from which modern Norwegian is descended have arguably had a greater impact, over a longer period, on most northern dialects than Old Casino hohensyburg restaurant Norse. In historical linguistics, the dividing line between North and Midlands runs from the River Ribble or River Lune on the west coast to the River Humber on the east coast. The Landscape and Geography of Northern England". We Danced All Löwen play casino nürtingen

Torhüter England Video

Jordan Pickford: Englands Torwart-Hoffnung

World News Reuters Thursday June 23, The man accused of murdering British member of parliament Jo Cox in her electoral district in northern England last week was told on Thursday he will go on trial in November.

The British flag flew at half-mast over the UK parliament as the nation mourned lawmaker Jo Cox who was killed in a shock daylight street attack in her home town in northern England on Thursday.

The murder of the pro-European Union lawmaker has halted campaigning for the referendum on Britain's membership in the bloc just a week before the crucial A Bangladeshi-origin owner of a curry house in northern England was today found guilty of manslaughter after a man with a severe nut allergy died as a result of dining at his restaurant.

A Bangladeshi-origin owner of a restaurant in northern England went on trial today charged with manslaughter after a man with a severe nut allergy died as a result of dining at his restaurant.

British Principal Tells Parents: No Pajamas On School Run. The first Trades Union Congress was held in Manchester in , [] and as of trade union membership in Northern England remained higher than in Southern England, although it is lower than in the other Home Nations.

At the EU membership referendum , all three Northern England regions voted to leave, as did all English regions outside London.

The largest Northern Remain vote was Campaigns for regional autonomy for the North have seen little electoral support. Christianity has been the largest religion in the region since the Early Middle Ages; its existence in Britain dates back to the late Roman era and the arrival of Celtic Christianity.

The Holy Island of Lindisfarne played an essential role in the Christianisation of Northumbria, after Aidan from Connacht founded a monastery there as the first Bishop of Lindisfarne at the request of King Oswald.

After the English Reformation Northern England became a centre of Catholicism, and Irish immigration increased its numbers further, especially in North West cities like Liverpool and Manchester.

As of , the list of places of worship registered for marriage for Northern England included at least 1, that are Methodist or Independent Methodist , 1, Roman Catholic, United Reformed , Baptist or Particular Baptist , Jehovah's Witness and Salvation Army , as well as many hundreds of churches from smaller denominations.

In the ecclesiastical administration of the Church of England the entire North is covered by the Province of York , which is represented by the Archbishop of York — the second-highest figure in the Church after the Archbishop of Canterbury.

The unusual situation of having two archbishops at the top of Church hierarchy suggests that Northern England was seen as a sui generis.

Small Jewish communities arose in Beverley, Doncaster, Grimsby, Lancaster , Newcastle, and York in the wake of the Norman Conquest but suffered massacres and pogroms, of which the largest was the York Massacre in In total, there are 84 synagogues in Northern England registered for marriages.

Spiritualism flourished in Northern England in the nineteenth century, in part as a backlash to the fundamentalist Primitive Methodist movement and in part driven by the influence of Owenist socialism.

Transport in the North has been shaped by the Pennines, creating strong north-south axes along each coast and an east-west axis across the moorland passes of the southern Pennines.

Following the passage of the Cities and Local Government Devolution Act , Transport for the North will become a statutory body in , and will be given powers to coordinate services and offer integrated ticketing throughout the region.

The Preston By-pass , opened in , was the first motorway in the UK, and today an extensive network connects the major cities of the North.

Other trans-Pennine roads are comparatively minor, and the lack of any dual-carriageway connection between the east and west coasts anywhere in England north of the M62 has been identified by the Department for Transport as a significant hindrance to the Northern economy.

Buses are an important part of the Northern transport mix, with bus ridership above the England and Wales average in all three Northern regions.

The North of England pioneered rail transport. Milestones include the Middleton Railway in Leeds, the first railway authorised by Act of Parliament and the oldest continually operating in the world; the Stockton and Darlington Railway , the first public railway to use steam locomotives ; and the Liverpool and Manchester Railway , the first modern main line.

The first tram line in the United Kingdom was built in Birkenhead and opened on 30 August Manchester Airport serves as the main international hub for Northern England and is the busiest airport anywhere in the UK outside London, handling The planned High Speed 2 station at Manchester Airport will offer direct high-speed services to London, allowing spare capacity at Manchester Airport to take some of the flights which currently serve busy London airports.

The first modern canal in England was Sankey Brook , opened in to connect Liverpool's ports to the St Helens coalfields. Many Northern coastal towns were built on trade, and retain large sea ports.

The Humber ports of Grimsby and Immingham counted as a single port for statistical purposes are the busiest in the UK in terms of tonnage, serving From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The three Northern England government regions shown within England , without regional boundaries. Other cultural definitions of the North vary.

Historical and alternative regions of England. Climate of the United Kingdom. Fish and chips with mushy peas. History of Rugby League. Office of National Statistics.

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The Rising of the North". Archived from the original on 24 February Archived from the original on 6 April Retrieved 10 March Archived from the original on 19 April The industrial revolution arrives".

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Archived from the original on 17 July Liverpool John Moores University. From the Irish Sea to the Allegheny Mountains". Archived from the original on 24 November Roots of Employment Thesis.

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Archived from the original on 28 May A Guide for Developing Cultural Competence. Translated by Waine, Oliver. Archived from the original on 10 April Rebirth of a City , Clear Publications, p.

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Archived from the original on 13 August Retrieved 7 March Archived from the original on 5 February Workforce jobs by region and industry".

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Archived from the original on 19 September Archived from the original on 20 December England's most and least deprived places — in pictures".

Archived from the original on 26 March Archived from the original on 19 August The Rise of the English Regions?

Archived from the original on 23 May Archived from the original on 10 September In the more rural dialects and those of the far North, this is typically ye , while in cities and areas of the North West with historical Irish communities, this is more likely to be yous.

Conversely, the process of "pronoun exchange" means that many first-person pronouns can be replaced by the first-person objective plural us or more rarely we or wor in standard constructions.

These include me so "give me" becomes "give us" , we so "we Geordies" becomes "us Geordies" and our so "our cars" becomes "us cars".

The latter especially is a distinctively Northern trait. Almost all British vernaculars have regularised reflexive pronouns , but the resulting form of the pronouns varies from region to region.

In Yorkshire and the North East, hisself and theirselves are preferred to himself and themselves. Other areas of the North have regularised the pronouns in the opposite direction, with meself used instead of myself.

This appears to be a trait inherited from Irish English, and like Irish speakers, many Northern speakers use reflexive pronouns in non-reflexive situations for emphasis.

Depending on the region, reflexive pronouns can be pronounced and often written as if they ended -sen , -sel or -self even in plural pronouns or ignoring the suffix entirely.

In addition to Standard English terms, the Northern English lexis includes many words derived from Norse languages, as well as words from Middle English that disappeared in other regions.

The Yan Tan Tethera system was traditionally used in tasks such as shepherding, counting stitches in knitting and reckoning money, as well as in children's nursery rhymes and counting-out games , and may have been borrowed from a relatively modern form of the Welsh language rather than being a remnant of the Celtic of Northern England.

A study of a corpus of Late Modern English texts from or set in Northern England found lad "boy" or "young man" and lass "girl" or "young woman" were the most widespread "pan-Northern" dialect terms.

Regional dialects within Northern England also had many unique terms, and canny "clever" and nobbut "nothing but" were both common in the corpus, despite being limited to the North East and to the North West and Yorkshire respectively.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Northern England English. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.

Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. July Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Geordie and Northumberland, when not final or before a voiced fricative: West Yorkshire, more commonly: An Atlas of English Dialects.

Journal of Linguistics Vol. Retrieved 11 July In Schneider, Edgar W. A handbook of varieties of English. A Critical Introduction to Phonetics.

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